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The “population sex ratio” refers to the total number of males for every 100 females in the population.Figures for this ratio are generally taken from census data and are regarded as more reliable than figures for sex ratio at birth.In China, the One Child Policy presents specific challenges to accurate data collection because there may be collusion between parents and authorities to hide births that are not approved within the Policy (3).

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Son preference is manifest prenatally, through sex determination and sex-selective abortion, and postnatally through neglect and abandonment of female children, which leads to higher female mortality (28).

Largely as a result of this practice, there are now an estimated 80 million missing females in India and China alone.

The large cohorts of “surplus” males now reaching adulthood are predominantly of low socioeconomic class, and concerns have been expressed that their lack of marriageability, and consequent marginalization in society, may lead to antisocial behavior and violence, threatening societal stability and security.

The tradition of son preference, however, has distorted these natural sex ratios in large parts of Asia and North Africa.

This son preference is manifest in sex-selective abortion and in discrimination in care practices for girls, both of which lead to higher female mortality.

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