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For example, beads closely resembling those from the temple repositories at Cnoss and dating from C.1600 B.

C were found in a late context (Period V) at Harappa. By noting the association of these beads it has been possible to trace a archaeological datum line across Indian sub-continent and Mesopotamia.

Because of the fairly fast decay rate of carbon-14, it can only be used on material up to about 60,000 years old.

Geologists use radiocarbon to date such materials as wood and pollen trapped in sediment, which indicates the date of the sediment itself.

When ‘parent’ uranium-238 decays, for example, it produces subatomic particles, energy and ‘daughter’ lead-206.

Isotopes are important to geologists because each radioactive element decays at a constant rate, which is unique to that element.

Basing on this principle, the cultural assemblages found in different layers can be assigned a chronological personality. In practice it is found that the mounds are disturbed9 by all sorts of pits and dumps.

They use absolute dating methods, sometimes called numerical dating, to give rocks an actual date, or date range, in number of years.For example, fission track dating measures the microscopic marks left in crystals by subatomic particles from decaying isotopes.Another example is luminescence dating, which measures the energy from radioactive decay that is trapped inside nearby crystals.Quite convincing dates are sometimes arrived at by importing parallels from other contemporaneous cultures.This parallelism is formed due to trade relations, particularly wehen trade followed in both directions.

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