Relaxed phylogenetics and dating with confidence

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Hosni Cherif, François Duhamel, Jean-François Bouchard and colleagues reveal the influence of two intermediates of carbohydrate metabolism (succinate and α-ketoglutarate) and their receptors (GPR91 and GPR99) on the growth of retinal ganglion cell axons during development of the retino-thalamic system.

This Essay re-visits an old mystery, the nature of the plant germline, concluding that we know a lot less than we think we do, and proposing a new approach to reveal the nature of the germline in all plants.

The wapiti range over much of North America and eastern Asia and are superficially similar to the Red deer of Europe and Asia (an area collectively termed “Eurasia”).

This structural biology study by Daniel Stöppler, Alex Macpherson, Hartmut Oschkinat, Alastair Lawson and colleagues establishes an innovative approach to characterizing the allosteric effects of ligand binding, here exploring new compounds that bind to the neonatal Fc receptor, a validated drug-target in autoimmune diseases.Unfortunately, the majority of these traits are not good taxonomic indicators, because they’re readily influenced by the environment – arguably this is especially true for body size and antler growth, both of which can be severely limited in habitats with poor grazing/browsing, even though antler development appears deeply rooted in the animal’s genetics.Consequently, the subspecific division of the Red deer remains a controversial topic.Work by taxonomists from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s led to the splitting of wapiti and Red deer based on data from skeletal measurements, protein assays and haemoglobin morphology.However, in their review of the situation in 1989, Patrick Lowe and Andrew Gardiner concluded that, from their analysis of nearly 300 deer skulls, although some morphological variation exists supporting the separation at the during 2004, by Technical University Munich-Weihenstephan (in Germany) taxonomist Christian Ludt and three colleagues, looked at a particular gene carried on the mt DNA of 51 populations of deer spanning the entire distribution of (henceforth referred to as the Red deer).

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